This Thirty-Seventh Edition of ANNUAL EDITIONS: PSYCHOLOGY provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for each section; a topical index; and an instructor?s resource guide with testing materials. USING ANNUAL EDITIONS IN THE CLASSROOM is offered as a practical guide for instructors. ANNUAL EDITIONS titles are supported by our student website, www.mhcls.com/online.
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UNIT 1. The Science of Psychology
1. Why Study Psychology?, Linda M. Bartoshuk et al., APS Observer, May 2004
Four well-known psychologists describe why they studied psychology and how they are currently using their training. Each psychologist works in a different but important subfield of psychology.
2. Does Psychology Make a Significant Difference in Our Lives?, Philip G. Zimbardo, American Psychologist, July/August 2004
Noted psychologist Philip Zimbardo argues that psychology indeed does make a difference in our lives. Psychologists, however, need to continue to “give psychology away” to the public. Zimbardo highlights psychology’s achievements in the fields of testing, behavior change, therapy, life-span development, parenting, stress, the unconscious, work, and prejudice. He also highlights areas where psychology can make notable differences in the future, for example preventing the spread of AIDS.
Author Scott Lilienfield contends that beginning psychology students believe that the term “psychology” is synonymous with popular psychology, a discipline not firmly grounded in science. Lilienfield continues that students should learn to be skeptical about popular psychology and to learn to discriminate good science and sound psychology from pseudoscience and psychology as presented in the mass media.
4. Causes and Correlations, Massimo Pigliucci, Skeptical Inquirer, January/February 2003
This article reminds the reader to think critically about science. Too many phenomena, such as ESP (extra-sensory perception), are explained post hoc. Few lay people understand the difference between correlation and causation. The author reviews these two concepts and also explains control, experimentation, and statistical inference.UNIT 2. Biological Bases of Behavior
5. The Amazing Brain: Is Neuroscience the Key to What Makes Us Human?, Richard Restak, The Washington Times, September 5, 2004
Neuroscience is helping psychologists and other scientists understand the brain and its functions. Important discoveries are helping researchers and practitioners make sense out of seemingly incomprehensible neurological syndromes now that we know more about neural pathways in the brain.
6. Genetic Influence on Human Psychological Traits, Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., Current Directions in Psychological Science, August 2004
A large body of evidence supports the conclusion that individual differences in many psychological characteristics, normal or not, are influenced by genetic factors. Bouchard reviews why the study of genetics is important to psychology and then proved estimates of the magnitude of genetic influence on various traits such as intelligence, interests, mental health, personality, and social attitudes.
Various brain-imaging technologies have now made possible the study of brain structure and function. Studies are revealing information about brain development, differences and similarities between the sexes, and other matters related to the size and shape of the brain.UNIT 3. Perceptual Processes
There are a myriad of ways to protect and improve many of our senses, such as sight, audition, olfaction, and taste. Simple strategies such as loosening one’s necktie, taking vitamins, wearing ear plugs, and exercising regularly help keep our senses sharp and thus make our lives richer.
9. Eye Wise: Seeing Into the Future, Bonnie Liebman, Nutrition Action Health Letter, November 2004
Vision loss is not inevitable, although some loss occurs with age. Mounting evidence indicates that proper care and nutrition can help to maintain healthy vision. This article covers eye problems such as cataracts and macular degeneration. First, the article explains what these maladies are, then covers the causes for them, and finally reviews how such problems might be prevented.
10. A Matter of Taste, Mary Beckman, Smithsonian, August 2004
The author reviews the research of psychologist Linda Bartoshuk who studies taste. She has discovered “supertasters”, individuals who have many taste buds (papillae on their tongues) and whose taste experiences are intense. Bartoshuck also discovered that taste sensitivity can affect health via the foods people prefer.
Out-of-body and near-death experiences are part of the parcel of the parapsychological phenomena that have fascinated people for centuries. Psychologists armed with new brain imaging techniques are just beginning to understand how and why these experiences occur.UNIT 4. Learning and Remembering
12. Teaching for Understanding, Tom Sherman and Barbara Kurshan, Learning & Leading with Technology, December 2004
The authors review several important principles of learning and then explore how teachers can and should implement the principles. These same principles can be employed even when technology is used in the classroom. The important concept of metacognition is also considered.
Working memory is that part of memory that can be accessed and of which we are aware at any given moment. It affects how much information we can manage or process at any given moment. Researchers are studying how to improve working memory, which would benefit everyone from chess masters to learning-disabled children.
14. Theory of Multiple Intelligences: Is It a Scientific Theory?, Jie-Qi Chen, Teachers College Record, January 2004
This valuable article reviews what a theory is, the purpose of a theory, how a theory is validated, as well as the theory of multiple intelligences and whether it is a credible contribution to psychology and education.UNIT 5. Cognitive Processes
With a practiced eye, Wallraff looks at the development of various worldwide languages. From Shakespeare to lay people, individuals are busy adding new words to their native tongues. The addition of such words might just reveal something about our inner lives.
16. What Was I Thinking?, Eric Jaffe, APS Observer, May 2004
Nobel Laureate and psychologist Daniel Kahneman’s remarks at the National Institute of Health are reviewed by Eric Jaffe. Kahneman purposely flawed his talk to demonstrate that flawed thinking plays no favorites, even with Nobel Laureates. Kahneman’s studies of expert intuitions have found that under certain conditions, such as being overly confident, even experts are subject to cognitive mistakes.
17. Mysteries of the Mind, Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, U.S. News & World Report, February 28, 2005
According to this article, our inner lives are rich and interesting but often inaccessible. As Freud suggested, much of our everyday behavior is not conscious or volitionally controlled. Brain imaging and other forms of innovative research are leading the way toward understanding what may occur in the unconscious.UNIT 6. Emotion and Motivation
18. Unconscious Emotion, Piotr Winkielman and Kent C. Berridge, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 2004
Traditionally, psychologists believed that emotions are consciously experienced and thus provide awareness of each emotion. Research in evolutionary psychology, subliminal stimulation, and neuroscience now indicates that emotions can be unconscious and therefore remain inaccessible to introspection.
The study of emotional intelligence (EQ) has come of age in that there is a substantial amount of research on the concept. Not only can emotional intelligence be defined and measured, EQ has practical implications for everyday life.
20. The Value of Positive Emotions, Barbara L. Fredrickson, American Scientist, July/August 2003
Positive psychology has taken root in mainstream psychology. Psychologists are being urged to study human resilience and well-being instead of typical and mostly negative human elements of past interest. The author of this article examines the history of the study of negativity and illuminates the reader about what positive psychology has to offer by way of science.
Ambition or achievement motivation, as psychologists label it, varies by the individual and the culture. Some aspects of it appear to be learned but other aspects may be inherited. Nonetheless, it is what gives us the drive to succeed.
Written in a readable fashion, a physician leads readers through an introduction to the causes of and problems related to obesity. Causes range from environmental changes to personality dimensions to biological syndromes. The author also examines why obesity is an important problem to be reckoned with in contemporary society.UNIT 7. Development
While couples look forward to their first child, social scientists are finding that newborns cause increased distress for new parents. Why this is so is revealed in this enlightening article.
24. The Methuselah Report, Wayne Curtis, AARP Bulletin, July/August 2004
Scientists are finding ways to help us live longer. But is such a goal desirable? The important questions are, “Will we extend the number of days we live or actually extend the usefulness of our lives?” Author Wayne Curtis replies that the answer is complex; when we live longer, our patterns of housing, work, interpersonal relationships, and other factors must also change.
Adolescence need not be a time of high drama or conflict between parents and children. Research shows that many teens escape their adolescence without getting into trouble. Several factors such as confidence and competence predict who will and will not fare well.
The baby boomers are expected to live longer than any previous generation. Because of their sheer size and longevity of their cohort group they are going to rewrite how Americans retire, rehire, stay well, and find sufficient income to live on.
27. The Borders of Healing, Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, U.S. News & World Report, January 17, 2005
Each culture has its own way of coping with grief. Major differences are thought to exist between Eastern (interdependent) and Western (independent) cultures in how mourning occurs. This interesting article provides a close look at attendant cultural differences, for example in how people communicate and whether they seek social support in times of loss.UNIT 8. Personality Processes
Jerry Adler reviews the criticism of as well as the advancements provided by Freudian (psychoanalytic) theory. The article also provides an excellent “family tree” for several other psychological theories as well as a glossary of terms that trace back to Freud but which are found in common parlance today.
High self-esteem is a good thing according to humanistic psychologists and educators who try to instill it in America’s children. “But is it necessarily good?” question the authors of this article. Baumeister and his colleagues sort through the scientific literature on high self-esteem and its effect on various behaviors such as teen sexuality, bullying, and school performance and conclude that its influence is mixed at best.
30. The Testing of America, Caroline Hsu, U.S. News & World Report, September 20, 2004
All of us have been administered psychological tests whether we know it or not. Personality tests, although among the most debated of tests, are popular screening devices for personnel managers and other seeking shortcuts to understanding another individual. Controversy swirls not just around the quality and standardization of the tests but also around the interpretation of test results.UNIT 9. Social Processes
31. To Err Is Human, Bruce Bower, Science News, August 14, 2004
Classic studies in social psychology are still causing a stir. Milgram’s obedience to authority research, Zimbardo’s prison study, and Latane and Darley’s bystander apathy studies, among others, all point to human flaws and foibles. Criticism of these studies and their conclusions have spawned further research with quite different results and interpretations.
32. Deception Detection, Carrie Lock, Science News, July 31, 2004
The average person thinks he or she knows exactly how to detect whether another person is lying—through gaze aversion. Social psychologists have discovered, however, that this technique is based on myth. Research on deception detection is now revealing what liars really do to give themselves away.
This essay discloses how self-concept develops and how we incorporate reflected appraisal from significant others into our self-concept. Additionally, information about related concepts such as shyness, the role of the environment (or context), and self-awareness are discussed in this article.
Molavi reviews some of the historic demographic and social changes that have occurred in Saudi Arabia, including women’s rights, education, burgeoning use of the Internet, the influence of rock music, and the new worldview of Islam. Molavi also addresses whether these changes are for the better and if they are received warmly by several generations.UNIT 10. Psychological Disorders
35. The Age of Depression, Allan V. Horwitz and Jerome C. Wakefield, Public Interest, Winter 2005
The authors review the history of the study of depression. They claim that what used to be normal sadness has now become a psychiatric disorder named depression. The implications for society of these historic changes are also discussed in detail.
The Iraqi war is predicted to cause more psychological casualties than any war in our history. Soldiers face the stress of leaving their families and friends behind after deployment as well as intense combat stress once inside Iraq. Psychologists are helping to fashion treatment programs for the soldiers as well as all-important follow-up care.UNIT 11. Psychological Treatments
37. The Quandary Over Mental Illness, Richard E. Vatz, USA Today Magazine, November 2004
Debates continue to churn within and outside of psychiatry and psychology with regard to mental disorders. What mental disorder is, whether indeed the term “disorder” is appropriate, which medications, if any, are effective, and how the talking cure work are just some of the issues under scrutiny.
An interview with a recent Nobel Laureate neurobiologist reveals much about the relationship between psychology and biology. Besides describing what a psychotherapist needs to know about biology, Eric Kandel, the Nobel Laureate, also elaborates upon his research on happiness, memory, and consciousness.
Depression is among the most common mental disorders; thus, scientists have rushed to find better treatments. Advances in brain research and in understanding the brain’s responses to stress are paving the way for the development of promising interventions.
40. Computer- and Internet-Based Psychotherapy Interventions, C. Barr Taylor and Kristine H. Luce, Current Directions in Psychological Science, February 2003
The Internet offers great promise as an alternative to face-to-face testing, diagnosis, and therapy. One of the main problems, however, is that there is little actual science demonstrating that the Internet is a safe and effective place for people to find the psychological assistance they need.